About this page.
The CSA CAD Guide for Archaeologists and Architectural Historians

Important notice: The CSA web site was re-designed in August of 2010. Some documents then available were considered complete and static; so they were not included in the re-design and were not updated. This is one of those documents. Information about dates of posting and revision remains here, but there will be no revision of any kind after August, 2010.


IV. Some Examples of CAD Models and Model Making


IV. 1 Introduction

The following are examples of CAD work that may be of interest to potential users of the technology. Since these references are to existing documents, not re-written descriptions, this is essentially an annotated bibliography and set of suggestions for further reading.

Many of the entries are Web pages; so readers may find that some are no longer available; please advise the author in such cases. By the same token, suggestions for other materials to be included should also be forwarded to the author. This portion of the CSA CAD Guide will be updated regularly.

Many Web sites dealing with CAD and either archaeology or architectural history provide images and, in sometimes subtle but often not-so-subtle ways, treat computer models as only images, not data sources. For instance, one site, http://www.cs.ukc.ac.uk/people/staff/nsr/arch/visrcant/visrcant.html, is entitled "Visualizing Roman Canterbury: Computer Graphics in Archaeology." The site credits CAD as part of the model-making process, but it shows renderings of various reconstructed structures with no information about the underlying CAD models, how they were created, or what may have been learned from the geometric information contained in the models. In that site, as so often, access to the models themselves is not available, and rendered images are presented rather than hidden-line CAD drawings. They are many similar sites, but they have not been included in this list of resources. Many may be of interest to readers, but they do not offer insight into the use of CAD for either archaeology or architectural history. Unintentionally, they also suggest that CAD is a graphic tool rather than a data recording system.

IV. 2 Project Web Sites and Publications

These sources are listed in order by title, not author, since the Web sites generally have no attribution of authorship.

Amiens Cathedral Project at http://www.arch.columbia.edu/DDL/projects/amiens/ -- The project focuses more on images than CAD models.

The Bath Royal Literary & Scientific Institution, Grande Parade, Bath at http://www.artuk.co.uk/brlsi/island.htm -- This site and the project are still developing. Its utility is currently somewhat limited, but there seems to be much more coming.

The Corinth Computer Project at http://corinth.sas.upenn.edu/corinth.html -- This is an extremely useful and valuable site. The project has been on-going since the later 1980s, and the site has both results and discussions of methodology. This is also an excellent example of the use of CAD with GIS.

The Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London at http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/london/model/ -- There is limited information, but the site is nonetheless of interest. The model here is based on existing detailed construction documents.

The CSA Propylaea Project at http://propylaea.org -- An on-going project. The site contains articles about the work processes, some drawings from the CAD files already built, and many photographs of the structure.

The Entrance to the Athenian Acropolis Before Mnesicles, Harrison Eiteljorg, II, Boston, 1993 and downloadable CAD model of the older propylon on the Athenian Acropolis at http://csanet.org/archive/csaarchive/greece/oprop/oldprop.html -- The monograph has many drawings that were taken from a CAD model and modified in an illustration program, but they have been printed very poorly. Via the CSA Web site, the CAD model (in DWG format) can be downloaded, along with documentation files.

The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments, James E. Packer, California, 1997. (See also: http://www.ust.ucla.edu/ustweb/Projects/trajans_forum.htm) -- The results from a meticulous study of the forum, beginning with hand drawings, progressing to CAD and virtual reality.

Giza Plateau Computer Model at http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/COMP/GIZ/MODEL/Giza_Model.html -- An excellent example of CAD modeling of both geographic and constructed realities, with clear indications of the processes involved.

Louis I. Kahn: Unbuilt Masterworks, Kent Larson, New York, NY, 2000 -- The emphasis here is on rendered views, but the method starts with carefully constructed CAD models of buildings Louis Kahn designed but never finished.

The Pompeii Forum Project at http://www.iath.virginia.edu/iath/treport/autocad.html and http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pompeii/ -- A long-term project using CAD and total station survey techniques. The first URL leads to a discussion specifically about the use of CAD in Pompeii; the second to the project home page. (See also various CSA Newsletter articles about the Pompeii Forum Project.)

The Presentation of Historic Building Survey in CAD. Undated. Contributors: Dave Andrews, Bill Blake, Nigel Fradgley, Sarah Lunnon, and Paul Roberts. Available over the Web as two PDF files through the English Heritage site at http://www.english-heritage.org.uk -- apparently accessible only with Internet Explorer. Follow links to Publications, Free Publications, List of Free Publications.

IV. 3 Articles about CAD Work

"Building Geometric and Photometric Correct 3-D Models," Peter K. Allen, Michael Reed and Ioannis Stamos at http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~allen/NEW/workshop.html -- There are some illustrations that suggest an interesting approach to model-making, but this is not an easy site to learn from or to use.

Cast-iron bridge in Shropshire, England at http://www.sean.co.uk/a/science/ironbridge.shtm -- An article concerning the project with interesting notes about the findings made possible by the use of CAD and precise survey.

"How We Build a Rendered 3D Model: An Example from the Northwest Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal II at Nimrud" at http://www.learningsites.com/NWPalace/NWPalhome.html -- A careful explanation of the process of moving from plans and limited information about the superstructure to a full, 3D model.

"Nemi, Loc. Santa Maria, and the Application of Computer Technologies in Field Excavation," Søren Fredslund Andersen and Pia Guldager Bilde, CSA Newsletter XIII.1 (Spring 2000) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/spring00/nls0001.html -- A thorough explanation of the application of CAD to a specific excavation problem.

"Visions of Troy," Elizabeth Riorden, Archaeology Magazine, 53.1 (January/February 2000). An article about the use of CAD at Troy. The emphasis is on visualization, but the CAD usage is clear and sophisticated.

IV. 4 Other CSA Newsletter Articles

Some CSA Newsletter articles of particular relevance -- for more CSA Newsletter articles about CAD, see the Newsletter index section on CAD. Articles are ordered by date of publication, from newest to oldest. (Articles not available via the CSA Web site may be ordered from CSA by email.)

"Learning AutoCAD from Scratch -- Making Halieis Maps," Marian McAllister, XIV,2 (Fall 2001) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/fall01/nlf0102.html -- A beginner's look at learning to use AutoCAD for a two-dimensional job.

"A Subtle CAD Problem -- The Surface Normal," Harrison Eiteljorg, II, XIII,3 (Winter 2001) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/winter01/nlw0107.html -- A short discussion of one of the peculiar problems of surface modeling.

"Using CAD on an Archaeological Site," Harrison Eiteljorg, II, XII,2 (Fall 1999) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/fall99/nlf9905.html -- A short article concerning data density.

"AutoCAD® as an Exploratory Device," Marie-Thèrése Zenner, XI, 2 (Fall, 1998) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/fall98/nlf9803.html -- An article about the use of CAD to help find and explore geometric relationships in a structure.

"Continuing Work on Pseira Model," VIII,1 (May, 1995) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/may95/nl059510.html; "Pseira CAD Work Continues," William B. Hafford, VII, 4 (February 1995) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/feb95/nl029506.html; and "New CAD Work on Pseira Cemetery," VII, 3 (November, 1994) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/nov94/nl119402.html -- These articles describe the work to create a two-dimensional CAD model of the cemetery at a Bronze Age site on the small island of Pseira, just off the northeast shore of Crete.

"The Ustica Excavations -- A Total Station, AutoCAD at Work," R. Ross Holloway and Susan S. Lukesh, VII, 2 (August, 1994) at http://csanet.org/newsletter/aug94/nl089405.html -- A very sophisticated use of AutoCAD and additional modules to map and to examine artifact density.

"CAD Applications in Architectural History: The Case of Early Islamic Jerusalem," Mohammed Al-Asad, VI, 2 (August, 1993) -- A very complex CAD model of the Jerusalem at various periods.

"The Excavation Information System from the University of Amsterdam," Willem Beex, VI, 1 (May, 1993), pp. 5-9 -- A description of a system for recording excavation plans, sections, and artifacts locations.

"Isthmia Roman Bath Summer Field Report -- 1990," Mike Stys, III, 3 (November, 1990), pp. 2-4 -- An early use of CAD in an excavation setting.

Another CSA publication, Computer-Assisted Drafting and Design: New Techniques for Old Problems, by H. Eiteljorg, II (http://csanet.org/inftech/cadbklt.html) may be of interest, but it is now out of date. The previous work was written in 1988 and last revised in 1996; this work is meant to supersede it.

  Continue to next chapter.     Go to glossary.   Go to Table of Contents.   Go to CSA home page.  

About this document: